POST-PANDEMIC PROGNOSTIC AND LESSONS FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
The pandemic since 2019 and its post-pandemic prognostic today puts the Tourism Industry at a significant disadvantage. Tourism is at its lowest ebb. Nevertheless, domestic and national tourism could be considered for investments and gains. The latest global tourism industry insights make interested partners understand the growing markets and help to build a successful growth strategy.
The categories of tourism that could increase any State’s earnings are:
- Hotel and Travel services,
- Passenger transportation,
- Parks, Agritourism,
- Cultural attraction,
- Educational tourism,
- Tour operator,
- Taxi service,
- Bus services,
- Equipment rental,
- Wellness tourism,
- Performing art,
- Leisure travel,
- Package tour,
- Historic Site,
- Art Business,
- Golf tourism,
- and Dance tourism, among other types of tourism activities.
There is an international tourism grant that States might benefit from if adequately packaged.
Some Critical points:
- Tourism is an integral part of humans’ lives and not just a luxury.
- Increasing evidence shows that an integrated approach to tourism planning and management is required to achieve sustainable tourism.
- Tourism is an engine of growth, capable of rejuvenating other sectors of the economy.
- Tourism, through its inherent message of goodwill, Hospitality, trust, service without servility, tolerance, interaction, and communication, becomes the most effective mechanism for fostering tribal, national, and international cultural exchange and understanding among the people.
- Tourism is a proactive and vibrant economic unit of any State.
- Tourism education and training are one of the fundamental pillars of the development of new responsible and sustainable tourism.
The main principles governing the approach to tourism development are as follows:
- Promoting the involvement of the private sector and institutions in providing education and training.
- Encouraging the private tourism sector to increase its commitment.
- Addressing the specific needs of small, micro, and medium-sized businesses (SMMEs) and emerging entrepreneurs.
- Promoting tourism awareness at all levels of society.
- Encouraging the local media and NGOs to partner in the tourism awareness process.
Categories Of Tourism:
- Rural Tourism
- Adventure Travel: Adventure travel includes Backpacking, Motorcycle tours, Climbing, Hiking, and Mountaineering
- Geotourism has Geoparks as a sub-category:
- Medical Tourism: Health economies; Heath care; Dental tourism; Cancer Hospitals and Research Centers; Fertility tourism; International healthcare etc.
- Religious Tourism, including Halal tourism
- Space Tourism
Suggested Areas of Tourism Studies:
- Hotel Management
- Culinary and Chef Courses
- Hospitality Security and VIP protection.
- Hospitality IT and Web design, online bookings.
- Tour Guide courses and registrations.
- Travel Agency training.
- Landscaping and design
- Golf Course Management.
- Food and Beverage Management.
- Spa and Rejuvenation Courses.
- Medical Tourism.
- Fleet Management
- Air Traffic Control
- Airline Management and
- Entertainment/Pleasure Tourism
List Of Adjectival Tourism:
Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its adjective. Many of these have come into everyday use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain widespread usage. Adjectival tourism alphabetically includes:
- Sacred travel
- Scenic route
- Self-guided tour
- Sex tourism
- Shark tourism
- Space tourism
- Sports tourism
- Spring break
- Suicide tourism
- Sustainable tourism
**Credit for Adjectival tourism goes to Wikipedia.
Tourism Training Institute:
The objectives of the Tourism Training Institute are:
- To provide training for all tourism stakeholders.
- To deliver excellent, dynamic, innovative, and highly committed service of International Standard to tourists.
- To reaffirm the commitment to education in all ramifications.
- To enlighten citizenry & others through tourism
- To promote tourism and Hospitality as a viable economic sector
- To train the trainers for sustainable tourism development and
- To produce qualified staff for the hotels and tourism industries.
The benefits of this type of Institute are encompassing and, in the long term, will:
- Create jobs
- Alleviate Poverty
- Broadens economic base for the State
- Develop Tourism Sites
- Promote Social harmony, unity, tolerance, and peace.
Church Response To Discrimination Against Women In The Context Of Human Rights And Economic Challenges (Part Two)
Traditional African Society & Women:
Several works of literature on the role and place of women in African traditional society note that no degree of stereotyping against women existed in traditional Africa. The woman possessed the power to organize the family and society. There was an enormous task and responsibility conferred on womanhood. For St. Clair, the responsibility of both men and women was seen as complementary to one another: “There was a co-dependence and a balance that existed.”  In various traditional African societies, the African woman possessed the power that binds the society together. The survival of the family and the future of marriage depended greatly on the African woman. This is why Leith emphasizes that:
Culturally, African women were the transmitters of the language, the history and the oral culture, the music, the dance, the habits, and the artisanal knowledge. They were the teachers and were responsible for instilling traditional values and knowledge in children. Men were also essential in the transmission of knowledge to the youth because they had a different type of knowledge of the earth and environment, and also of ceremonies and traditions that were performed exclusively by men. 
In this regard, Leith explains that each gender had its role and responsibility, which helped in the formation and upkeep of the family, mainly as it affects the essential upbringing of children. Furthermore, Leith points out that the women had extensive knowledge of the natural environment; they were gatherers, meaning their communities depended on them to provide nourishment, or they would face starvation. Indigenous women in Africa were the healers; they held vital knowledge of herbs and medicines that ensured their communities’ survival. The indication is that women’s role in traditional Africa is a sine qua non to societal development. The impacts of the women were felt in every aspect of the life of the society. Thus, African women played a key role in the education and the teaching of children, especially the social, ethical, and moral values, which are part of the cultural standards for evaluating proper societal behavior. In evaluating the status and position of women in traditional Africa, Hafkin and Hanson reiterate that:
Women were treated with unparalleled respect because they were seen to be closer to the creator than men ever had the potential to be. This is because women themselves had the ability to create due to the fact that they were able to give birth. As a creation of life, they were charged with the sacred responsibility of caring for the needs of the next generation, and because of this, they can be regarded as the originators of the idea that is now known as sustainable development. 
Buttressing the above quotation, it is indisputable that societal sustainable development depends on a solid family structure. On this, Agarwal commented that the most critical aspect of life and survival in every society was the family. The women are often the backbone of the family in traditional Africa. Strong women who usually held pertinent positions in the family have always characterized the African family.  It is essential to mention that one of the many forms of traditional African notions of family structure, which cannot be ignored, was polygamy. Despite polygamy’s many woes, it is often viewed as a means of achieving family social and economic stability. B. Dobson elucidates in a broad perspective the necessity and importance of polygamy in family structure and its many benefits for the woman. According to him:
As a result of the agrarian society of the economy of traditional Africa, polygamy was considered socially necessary to ensure the continuation of the society and to provide for the needs of the many women who might otherwise never enjoy the status and benefits that accompany becoming a mother, a bearer of children and are thus a vital link to the ancestors. Wars between groups often resulted in the reduction of the male population. Thus, females usually outnumbered males. Unmarried women risked social humiliation without a husband and children; thus, the system sought to provide for the needs of everyone in the society. 
But despite the activities, roles, responsibilities, and positions women held in traditional African society, the man in pre-colonial Africa was still the head of the family and a leader of the society. The society was purely patriarchal. The man performed as the controlling agent in the family, while the women played supporting roles to the men. According to Agnes Loteta Dimandja , from a current observation of African society, women are generally banished from the public spheres of power. When they are urged to participate in the political life of their countries through civil and political authority, for instance, they often become indebted to the “chief” to whom they owe their “promotion.” However, African women demonstrate their merits outside of the political arena in another way. This ambivalent role is disclosed through the symbolic roles of mother, spouse, and educator. The African mother is more than a “domestic cook” in charge of managing the household.
The subjugation women suffer today on the grounds of being the “weak sex” is falsely determined by the differential roles of men and women. J.S. Mbiti points out that one of the indispensable roles of women in traditional society is that they see to the general cleanliness of a sizeable number of special days devoted to the worship of the deity in several societies’ cleansing or scrubbing the floor, plastering the walls and decorating the ‘sanctuary.’ Not only these, but he also observes that the duty of women, especially among the Yoruba, is to worship the emblem of the gods with special herbs during the annual ceremonies. He further remarked that as part of women’s care of sacred places, women in some communities are responsible for providing regular sacred water for particular deities. For example, among the devotees of Orisa Nla, whose cult is widely acknowledged all over Yoruba land and in some other localities, women who have reached the menopausal stage or young virgins are solely responsible for the drawing of the early morning water from undisturbed brook.
Adewale corroborated this view and observed that the sacred water was aptly called “Omi Aifo” (because the women who fetch the water were expected not to talk with anybody on the way), and stored the water in Orisa Nla’s sanctuary. The water “is ceremonially given to the devotees and among other benefits, it is believed to make barren women fertile” and to cure some diseases. Mbiti’s observations clearly showed that women serve in several priestly offices in the African traditional religions. While Mbiti’s assessment might be correct, he mentioned nothing about women’s place and role in the Christian Church. Concerning the status of women in traditional African Society, Azikiwe points out that in traditional Igboland, the place of a woman is in the home as a wife and a mother, who stays to bear children, rear them up, and take care of the home.  They are regarded as inferior and people who cannot do any other thing except produce children.
Some scholars opined that in primitive societies, women were seen as property to be bought and sold and were treated as enslaved people or even animals, enjoying neither sympathy nor respect. In corroborating with the above statement, Pritchard noted that:
Women in European societies can choose to marry or not to marry, and if they choose not to marry, they may devote their lives xxvii to teaching, research, administration, charity, etc., or they combine married life with a profession or job and with all sorts of interest outside the home. The primitive woman has no choice. 
Similarly, Hirsh observed, “the view that men are superior is a trait which actively encourages stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination.”  Thus, the oppression of women was built into the fabric of the society. In the early part of the 20th century, there was a small percentage of educated women, so civil service and other social professions were seen as strictly men’s rights. Women seen in such professions were regarded as intruders in masculine professions. Palmer, writing on this, asserts that “the impression conveyed then is of an ordered society with women playing a secondary but cheerful accepted and important role.”  Thus, women in traditional societies were exposed to institutional obstacles. Some women were accorded special recognition and respect, such as priestesses, queens, wives of traditional titleholders, etc. Usually, such respect and recognition were given based on religious and traditional considerations. Also, the traditional women have a clear vision of Motherhood’s “sacred duty” and carry it with appropriate diligence and commitment. Hence, Rosaldo observed that:
Women take care of their children because the Igbo family is such that a man has his own house, whereas the wife and children have theirs, showing that children’s first level of socialization begins with their mother, who directs them on issues as they grow. Hence, women’s role as mothers and primary socializing of children, in turn, set up the possibility of a distinction between domestic and public spheres, the former the province of women, the latter of men. 
Emphasizing the same point, George notes, “As a mother, she sustains a relationship to children which involves their care and their nature as a wife which is made for her husband for his pleasure and reproductive purposes.” 
Women’s Place In Contemporary Church:
In 1965, Heinzelmann raised the question of ordination about what the traditional practice of excluding women from the priesthood may imply about the baptism of women. She cites the doctrine of the spiritual character imparted by baptism, which makes the recipient capable of receiving the other sacraments and grounds the Christian in the rights and duties of church membership. She asserts that “the exclusion of women from priestly ordination, a sacrament, quite obviously runs counter to this doctrine of the full effect of Baptism.”  In another 1965 article, Charles R. Meyer urges a “careful” and “unprejudiced” re-examination of the question of the ordination of women in the early Church and States “to push the argument against the sacramentality of the ordination of deaconesses too far would be in fact to deny the sacramentality of the order of deacons.” 
The most substantial Roman Catholic contribution to the ordination discussion currently available in English is Haye van der Meer, S.J., Women Priests in the Catholic Church.  He investigated the arguments from Scripture, tradition, the magisterium, and speculative theology that dogmatic theologians have offered to affirm the practice of excluding women from orders, and concludes that “Catholic dogmatic theologians may not hold that according to the present position of theology it is already (or still) established on a scholarly basis that office’ should, by divine law, remain closed to women.” 
John J. Begley, S.J., and Carl J. Armbruster, S.J., likewise find the traditional material inconclusive and thus suggest that the issue of ordaining women is “pre-eminently a pastoral question.”  Pastoral arguments for and against ordination emphasize two interrelated aspects of priesthood: the functional and the symbolic. Mary Angela Harper inquires in an early article whether women’s contribution might be destroyed by being forced into “the existing structure of ecclesiastical functions and offices,”  and J. Galot, has argued that the priestly tasks related to cult, government, and preaching are “specifically masculine.” Women, he notes, are divinely destined to cooperate with these tasks but not to share them. He considers woman’s natural “feminine docility” to be in accord with the “masculine pastoral function of government” and holds that, with regard to preaching, woman performs the indispensable function of assimilating the truth as proclaimed by male preachers and then transmitting it in unofficial situations, chiefly to the young.  Still, others have suggested that the ordination of women at this time could have the negative effect of perpetuating a hierarchical “caste structure.”  Gregory Baum, on the other hand, maintains, “The ordination of women to the priesthood would restore a prophetic quality to the Church’s ministry, educating people to discern the injustices in present society and presenting them with an ideal for the participation of women in the life of society.” 
Frederick P. Chenderlin, S.J., acknowledges that ontologically, God could “work a miracle” that would empower a woman to “fulfill the task of consecration,” but argues that the maleness of Christ is vital because, at the Last Supper, he was “playing a particularly masculine role”  in undoing the harm caused by Adam. As Chenderlin interprets Paul, the maleness of Adam is essential to his headship and authority, and analogously, Christ’s redemptive activity must involve maleness since “man has precedence in authority over woman.”  Evans, Price, and Barnhouse, on the other hand, maintain that including women in ordained ministry could enhance the symbolic power of priestly service.  They are basically in agreement with Begley and Armbruster, who hold that “it is extrinsic and accidental to the incarnation that the specific human nature assumed by the Son was masculine.”  Evans maintains that “men and women redeemed in Christ’s friendship might be better symbolized by male and female priests, not the one sex voiding half the meaning of the symbol,”  and Cunningham points out that the ordination of women at this juncture of history might well serve to guarantee and express orthodoxy of faith since to exclude woman from priesthood based on sex amounts to “a new mode of neo-Arianism.”  Recently, arguments for ordination have emphasized the need to symbolize the fact that the image of God is both male and female, and this approach entails an essential shift in the discussion. Rather than asking whether it is right to include women in official ministry, these writers are inquiring, at least implicitly, whether it is wrong to continue excluding them.
In church leadership and ordination, Lavinia is categorical that the Roman Catholic Church’s position is that women cannot be ordained. In “the Catholic system, you cannot exercise the fullness of any leadership role unless you are male and ordained. Only the ordained men may lead.” According to the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in Modern World, 267, which Lavinia quotes, “Women are now employed in almost every area of life. It is appropriate that they should be able to assume their full proper role by their nature.” She pleads upon everyone “to acknowledge and favor the proper and necessary participation of women in cultural life.” This implies that women could make more contributions if given the opportunity. Elsewhere, she notes that all people are born equal.
Therefore, there should be no social or cultural discrimination based on sex, race, color, social condition, language, or Religion, which must be overcome and eradicated as centrally to God’s intent. This gives hope to women that they might be considered for essential roles in the Church. On the issue of women and the sacrament of priestly ordination, Clifford makes reference to the era of the second wave of feminism, when debates regarding the ordination of women began to occur in different churches such as the Roman Catholic, Protestant Episcopal, and Anglican Communion churches. He addressed the issue of the ordination of women in these different churches. He concluded that such issues keep recurring due to long-held traditions in these churches. Clifford points out that not all (Catholic) feminists support the priestly ordination of women. She asserts that this is the case because these feminists believe that the goal of attaining full partnership in the Church will not be achieved by ordaining women priests and that the hierarchical distinction between ordained priests and the laity exacerbates the existing problems.  Women in Pentecostal churches function in both supportive and substantive roles. Substantively, women function as prophetesses, founders, martyrs, bishops, and evangelists. Despite this, the subject of women’s role in the Church is controversial.
Most independent African Churches are well disposed to women’s leadership role in the Church as opposed to the mission churches where, according to Babalola, “Women could only lead in association that concerns solely the women.” The implication is that in the established mission churches, women are not given room to occupy leadership positions except when they have to lead their fellow women. Akin to this, Hewitt  opined that though the situation of women in church roles is changing in the West since most of the major Protestant denominations have removed formal barriers to the ordination of women, the churches are far from showing equality in leadership. This is because, according to Hewitt, women are still not allowed some critical positions of authority and responsibility in the Church. Alana  argued in favor of women’s leadership roles in the Church using the examples of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church and Christ Apostolic Church, both independent African churches.
Sackey examines the new dimension in gender relations in African Independent Churches (AICs) about women in leadership positions in the Church. She highlights how women have managed to break through the glass ceiling to reach the pinnacle of leadership in the Church. She further stated that women in AICs have been involved in finding alternative solutions to issues affecting the nation, bringing them into the high echelons of decision-making bodies. As stated by Sackey, some women members of AICs are today involved directly in political decision-making in their capacity as members of parliament, negating the old-age idea that women are apolitical. Sackey further stated that, despite all these achievements, it has been observed that the contributions of women in mission churches are slow in forthcoming. Sackey highlighted the differences between mission and spiritual churches in giving reasons for this situation. She states that the male-oriented nature of the mission churches contributes to their reluctance to develop females’ capabilities as leaders. For the Church in Africa, the ordination of women into leadership roles in the Church continues to be a complex issue.
In Kosomo Daniel’s article, he said African Theologian M. Oduyoye exposes the problem as she writes:
I study Okan proverbs (attempting) to demonstrate that women fall victim to linguistic imagery that socializes them to accept “their place” in society and to view with caution any call for more space Oduyoye (1990) in her book” Women Tradition and the Church in Africa.” She observes that in the traditional communities of Yoruba (Nigeria) and Akan (Ghana), where gender socialization is the norm, the strategy has distorted the quality of human relations, and it continues to deny the parity between women and men or to accept female and male as equivalent expressions of human being. Odudoye’s study has led her to conclude that chauvinism is a problem in Africa, “and not created … by the arrival of Islam and Christianity, but, one that is an integral part of our African world-view” “Women, in general, are educated to believe that being born female means to be born innately inferior damaged that there is something with us. We are told we are needed as mothers, caretakers, and cheap labor in the fields and factories. Due to women’s low self-esteem, they underrate themselves and leave leadership roles to men. The traditional way is that women do most of the work in the Church and society, and men hold most of the leadership. 
In an interview with Isaacson, Pastor W.F. Kumuyi, while enunciating his view on the role of women in the Church, explained that there is nothing unscriptural in women ministering. He buttressed this with the fact that women-led Bible studies in the early days of the Church. He, however, hinted that:
I could see from the scriptures that women have a lot of things to do at home. We still want them to take care of the family and the children. We wouldn’t want their ministry in the Church to conflict with the training of their children at home. So we try to strike a balance. 
Also, the Deeper Life Leadership Strategy Congress Booklet (1996) stated that there could be no higher ambition for a Christian woman than to be a faithful wife and a happy and influential mother. In conclusion, Bamisebi Olumakaiye writes that women’s ordination is a thorny issue in Anglican Communion as it is in all other mainline churches elsewhere in Nigeria. He comments that the situation has become more challenging following the World Council of Churches’ approval in 1987 of women’s ordination and women being given leadership in the Church. He also notes that in the Anglican Communion, the Lambeth Conference of 1988 also passed a resolution to recognize the admittance of women into the priestly order. For him, all these properly serve as a foothold for feminists and their sympathizers in the Church to adequately argue their cases in the Nigerian context.
However, he points out that there is a consensus among bishops of the Church of Nigeria that women should be admitted to permanent diaconate. Still, the resolution is yet to be implemented. He concludes that the reason for this can probably be the existing socio-culture, tradition, and other relevant challenges.
An overview of some of the challenges women have faced and are still facing are:
- Economic Disadvantage:
Economic power is critical to the ability of women to surmount challenges and be at the top leadership level either in the society or the Church. Most women are economically disadvantaged. Some women are thriving in businesses, and some are well-known successful entrepreneurs. The Federal government in Nigeria has in the past and presently helped Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), but most banks are not willing to grant required funds due to lack of collateral.
- Discriminatory Customs and Laws
The customs practices of many states in Nigeria subjugate women to men and undermine their self-esteem. The overall impact of gender bias, cultural norms, and practices has entrenched a feeling of inferiority in women and placed them at a disadvantage vis-à-vis their male counterparts in the socio-economic, political settings, and church management.
- Lack of Adequate Education
Though some school enrolment shows more females than men, women still constitute a more significant percentage of the illiterate group in Nigeria, especially in rural communities. There is an old custom of preference for sons to attend schools instead of daughters that few parents still hold on to today. Daughters are looked at as belonging to their eventual husbands and would belong to another family. There is a glaring disparity of gender inequality in theological education. Few women enroll to study religious or theological education and church leadership studies. In most human societies, the male is accorded a superior status, role, privileges, and opportunities to develop his potential and capabilities. At the same time, the female is subjected to an inferior subordinate status. It has resulted in gender inequality educationally, politically, socially, economically, and religiously. Women are wiser now and are pursuing education with great zeal.
- Domestic Violence:
Women face a lot of systematic discrimination from entrenched power relations that perpetuate the universal subordination of females. This discrimination makes them highly vulnerable to being harmed physically, sexually, or psychologically by men in their families and communities.
5. Lack of Affirmative Action Quota:
Affirmative Action is usually a measure intended to supplement non-discrimination; it is a broad term encompassing a host of policies that seek to support weak groups in society. They include policies where deliberate Action is used to stop discrimination. In 1979, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the ‘Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women’ – (CEDAW). Since its adoption, it has become a reference point for the women’s movement’s demand for gender equality. The 1999 Constitution made provisions similar to affirmative Action to supplement non-discrimination. Today, Nigerian women are clamoring for 35% affirmative action. It is not the use of ‘Affirmative Action’ that seems to be the problem but the practical effects and its linkage to fundamental ideas of fairness and Justice. The stronger argument for gender-based affirmative Action is just a token for equal representation in a country where women, who constitute about half or more of the population, have been continuously sidelined in public life to the extent that they have never held more than 15% of both appointive and elective offices.
Unlike the constitutions of some African countries, i.e., South Africa and Uganda, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria takes no cognizance of the disadvantaged position of women and has no provision for gender equality. Apart from the general reference to non-discrimination based on sex and so on, nothing in the constitution is aimed at addressing the disparities that exist along gender lines in Nigeria. In the Anglican Communion Church of Nigeria, there is still discrimination against women ordination as priests. Even though Anglican Communion in South Africa, some other African Countries and Countries in the West, like the United Kingdom and the United States of America, have female priests and bishops. 
Church Response To Women’s Challenges And Discrimination:
Jesus broke with tradition and treated women in a much more egalitarian way than was customary in the society of that time. The early Christian churches followed Jesus’ lead and gave women much higher status and more privileges than was common in the rest of the world. But Paul and other Christian leaders continued to affirm the principle of a husband’s family leadership and authority over his wife.
Christians disagree over whether this principle should apply in the modern world. Is the man’s authority over his wife and family a great spiritual principle decreed by God for all time, or is it, like the Bible’s teachings about slavery, just a reflection of the realities of Biblical-era culture? Today, many Christians believe women should enjoy all the same rights and privileges as men. Other Christians, however, continue to advocate a secondary role for women based on Genesis 3:16 and other Biblical passages.
The relationship between man and woman to God and one another depends on the biblical theology in Genesis 1: 27. Religion sustenance of male’s powers is based on a mythical superiority, which makes man the norm of humanity. The imprint of the myth is in the Bible and the Qur’an, especially in the wrong translation of texts by male religious leaders that have equated them with the word and will of God. The truth is that the world, including the Church, teaches opposite the teachings of the Bible. The world needs not politics, philosophy, or Religion but a right relationship with God through Jesus Christ – the mission of missions that will grow the Church. The Church’s response to the world is to uphold the word of God by ensuring gender equality. It has to start in the Church by not discriminating against women as ordained priests.
The Bible has a response to each of the gender hindrances: Philosophical, Religious, Political, and Economical. The consequences of wrong Scripture translation have led to Domestic Violence, Migratory Flow of Labour, and Sexual Abuse/Rape. The paper strongly advocates the systematic study of the Bible and hermeneutic exegesis by scholars to avoid wrong biblical interpretations. The Pentecostal churches, some very wealthy, have hardly intervened to address the challenges of these women facing economic deprivations. It is time to think inward and look at the suffering faces of women in the Church. The Bible teaches us to care for the poor, the widows, and the marginalized. Some churches are very good at welfare, so it should continue, while others should emulate the caring services.
Nigeria has had top-to-bottom programs like the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), the Peoples’ Bank, the Family Support Programme (FSP), etc., which were not entirely adequate. The emphasis here is bottom-top programs that would engage women from the grassroots. There are some legitimate hindrances to total emancipation of womanhood. All of them are significant and real but not impossible to overcome. The Bible has a response to each of the obstacles and hindrances. Therefore, the Church, built on a Biblical foundation, must respond to each hindrance and assist the women believers. Some barriers to women’s emancipation are gates erected by the masculine gender, and some are self-imposed by the feminine gender. Liberation theology teaches that the world’s people must be free from social-political-cultural-economic oppression, but the gospel relates primarily to sin.
Christ’s future kingdom on earth will ultimately deal with all problems – 1 Pet. 2:24-25. The world needs not politics, philosophy, or Religion but a right relationship with God through Jesus Christ – that is the mission of missions. In Genesis, we could conclude that God handed the microeconomics and macroeconomics of the whole world to both males and females as He created them – Gen. 1:28-30. All power belongs to God, and He has given both males and females equal leadership power in secularity and Religion. In essence, gender discrimination is a ‘sin,’ and the Church must desist from sinful conduct. The Church’s response to the world is to uphold the word of God by ensuring gender equality. It has to start in the Church by not discriminating against women as ordained priests. This paper calls upon religious leaders to play complementary roles with the political leaders and society. They are to address the plight of the discriminated female gender, facilitating improved living and working conditions and enabling them to play more roles in top leadership in churches and society.
-  Cited in O.T. Afisi, “Power and Womanhood in Africa: An Introductory Evaluation,” in The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol.3, no.6, March 2010
-  Ross Leith, African Woman, New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1967, 34.
-  Jone Hafkin, and Hanson Bay (eds) (1976), Women in Africa: Studies in Social and Economic Change, Stanford: Heinemann, 1976: 59-60
-  Bina Agarwal, Socio-Economic Background of Traditio African Family System, New York: Oxford University Press.1970: 75
-  B. Dobson, “Polygamy and Women’s Place in Africa” in Corona: Journal of African Cultural Studies, Vol. 1 No 12, 454-57.
-  A.L. Dimandja, The Role and Place of Womanhood in Africa in Sub-Saharan African Societies accessed and retrieved from http://www.globalaging.org/elderright/world/2004/subsaharan.htm on 10/14/2017.
-  J.S. Mbiti, The Role of Women in African Traditional Religion in Cahier des Religions Africaines 22 accessed and retrieved from http://afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm. On 10/15/2017
-  U. Azikiwe, Women in Development in the Society in Contemporary Sociology. John Jacobs Classic Publishers, 1997:155
-  Cited in Ozioma Faith, Onyenucheya, “The Role Of The Church Towards Amelioration Of Socio-Cultural Practices Inimical To Women,” A Thesis Submitted To The Department Of Religion And Cultural Studies faculty Of Social Sciences, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka, January 2012.
-  M.F. Hirsh, Women and Violence. New York: Vans Nostritand Reinhmold, 1981, 1
-  E. Palmer, The Feminist Point View: Buchi Emecheta’s The Joy of Motherhood. Africa Literature Today No. 13. Other Essay in Social Anthropology, 1983, 88
-  MZ. Rosaldo, Women Culture, and Society New York. John Willey and Sons., 1973: 163.
- H. George, The Poetry Foundation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979:864.
-  Heinzelmann “The Priesthood and Women,” Commonweal 81 (1965) 507.
-  Charles R. Meyer “Ordained Women in the Early Church,” Chicago Studies 4 (1965) 301.
-  Tr. Arlene and Leonard Swidler (Philadelphia, 1973). This doctoral thesis, which van der Meer completed under Karl Rahner, S.J. 1962, was first published as Priestertum der Frau? (Freiburg, 1969)
-  Van der Meer, 9. In 1973, the Committee on Pastoral Research and Practices of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops called for an “exhaustive study” of the reasons for and against women’s ordination. The Committee’s report, “Theological Reflections on the Ordination of Women,” is reprinted in the Journal of Ecumenical Studies 10 (1973) 695-99. It focuses on traditional arguments against ordaining women and does not give evidence of having taken into account the work of van der Meer. In “Will Women Be Ordained?” Origins 2 (1973) 743-44, Ann Gillen, SHCJ, objects to the negative emphasis of the report and predicts that a growing sense of rejection by the Roman Church will lead Catholic women to seek ordination in other Christian churches or to evolve an independent priesthood according to their sense of vocation.
-  John J., Begley, S.J., and Carl J. Armbruster, “Women and Office in the Church,” American Ecclesiastical Review 165 (1971) 145-57. Others stressing a pastoral approach include Meyer, Man of God, Gerald O’Collins, S.J., “An Argument for Women Priests,” America 129, 1973,122/3
- Mary Angela Harper “Women’s Role in the Church,” America 115, 1966, 93
- J. Galot, L’Eglise et la femme (Gembloux, 1965), 203.
-  Elizabeth Gössman, “Women as Priests,” tr. Simon King, in Apostolic Succession: Rethinking a Barrier to Unity, ed. Hans Küng (Concilium 34) . 115-25; Ann Kelley and Anne Walsh, “Ordination: A Questionable Goal for Women,” Heyer, Women and Orders, pp. 67-73
- Gregory Baum “Ministry in the Church,” Women and Orders, 57-66
-  P. Frederick and S.J., Chenderlin, “Women as Ordained Priests,” Homiletic and Pastoral Review 72 (1972) 27
-  P. Frederick and S. J., Chenderlin, 31
-  Evans, Art. cit.; Charles P. Price, Ordination of Women in Theological Perspective (Cincinnati, 1975); Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, “An Examination of the Ordination of Women to the Priesthood in Terms of the Symbolism of the Eucharist,” Women and Orders, 15-37
-  Cited in Women And Religion: A Survey Of Significant Literature, 1965-1974
-  Cited in Women And Religion: A Survey Of Significant Literature, 1965-1974
-  Cited in Women And Religion: A Survey Of Significant Literature, 1965-1974
-  Cited in Women And Religion: A Survey Of Significant Literature, 1965-1974
-  M. Clifford, Introducing Feminist Theology, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2001, 140-8
-  Clifford 2001, 140-148
-  Alan L. Hewitt, Gender Revolution, The: Emancipating Women and Empowering the Church Paperback, River Publishing & Media Ltd., 2016. 1st ed., 1976
-  Olu Emmanuel Alana, “Liberation of Womanhood: Fetters of Conservatism with Particular Reference to Women Leadership in the Cherubim and Seraphim Church.” In African Journal of Biblical Studies, Vol. VII, No 1, April, 1992, 93
-  Brigid M. Sackey, New Directions in Gender and Religion: The Changing Status of Women in African Independent Churches, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006
-  Cited in K. Daniel, 128 & 129
-  Isaacson, A., Deeper Life: Extraordinary story of the Deeper Life Church, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990
-  Ogbaji Udochukwu: https://plus.google.com/
Bibliography for Parts One & Two:
Afisi O. T., “Power and Womanhood in Africa: An Introductory Evaluation,” in The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol.3, no.6, March 2010
Agarwal Bina, Socio-Economic Background of Traditio African Family System, New York: Oxford University Press.1970
Alana, Olu Emmanuel, “Liberation of Womanhood: Fetters of Conservatism with Particular Reference to Women Leadership in the Cherubim and Seraphim Church.” In African Journal of Biblical Studies, Vol. VII, No 1, April, 1992,
Azikiwe U., Women in Development in the Society in Contemporary Sociology. John Jacobs Classic Publishers, 1997
Barret, David, World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world, second edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 1982
Baum Gregory, “Ministry in the Church,” Women and Orders,
Begley John J., and Carl J. Armbruster, “Women and Office in the Church,” American Ecclesiastical Review 165, 1971
Clifford M., Introducing Feminist Theology, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2001,
Daniel Kosomo, “The Role Of Women In The Church In Africa” in International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 2(6), 126-139, June 2010 Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ijsa ISSN 2006- 988x ©2010
Dimandja A. L., The Role and Place of Womanhood in Africa in Sub-Saharan African Societies accessed and retrieved from http://www.globalaging.org/elderright/world/2004/subsaharan.htm on 10/14/2017.
Dobson B., “Polygamy and Women’s Place in Africa” in Corona: Journal of African Cultural Studies, Vol. 1 No 12,
Evans, Art. cit.; Charles P. Price, Ordination of Women in Theological Perspective (Cincinnati, 1975); Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, “An Examination of the Ordination of Women to the Priesthood in Terms of the Symbolism of the Eucharist,” Women and Orders,
Ferguson, Everett, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, Second Edition, NY: Garland Publishing, 1998
Frederick P. & Chenderlin S. J., “Women as Ordained Priests,” Homiletic and Pastoral Review 72, 1972
Galot J., L’Eglise et la femme, Gembloux, 1965
George H., The Poetry Foundation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979
Gössman Elizabeth, “Women as Priests,” tr. Simon King, in Apostolic Succession: Rethinking a Barrier to Unity, ed. Hans Küng (Concilium 34) . 115-25; Ann Kelley and Anne Walsh, “Ordination: A Questionable Goal for Women,” Heyer, Women, and Orders,
Grudem Wayne, Systematic Theology: An Introduction To Biblical Doctrine, Nottingham NG7 3HR: InterVarsity Press, 2015 ed.,
Hafkin Jone, and Hanson Bay (eds), Women in Africa: Studies in Social and Economic Change, Stanford: Heinemann, 1976
Harper Mary Angela, “Women’s Role in the Church,” America 115, 1966,
Heinzelmann, “The Priesthood and Women,” Commonweal 81, 1965
Hewitt Alan L., Gender Revolution, The: Emancipating Women and Empowering the Church Paperback, River Publishing & Media Ltd., 2016. 1st ed., 1976
Hirsh M. F., Women, and Violence. New York: Vans Nostritand Reinhmold, 1981,
http://www.the women who followed christ.html
http://www.notablewomenancestors – Religious Leaders.html
H:\Women in the Middle Ages @ TraditionInAction_org.htm
Isaacson, A., Deeper Life: Extraordinary story of the Deeper Life Church, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990
Leith Ross, African Woman, New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1967, 34.
MacArthur J., New Testament Commentary, I Timothy, Chicago; Chicago Moody Press, 1995,
Meyer Charles R., “Ordained Women in the Early Church,” Chicago Studies 4, 1965
Mbiti J. S., The Role of Women in African Traditional Religion in Cahier des Religions Africaines 22 accessed and retrieved from http://afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr women.htm. On 10/15/2017
Mwaniki Lydia, ‘Unveiling Paul: A Postcolonial Feminist Examination of the Construction of the Roman Family and its Influence on Pauline and Contemporary Christians 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 in Journal of Constructive Theology, Gender, Religion and Theology in Africa’, Volume 16, No.l July, 2010.
Ogbaji Udochukwu: https://plus.google.com/
Onyenucheya Ozioma Faith, “The Role Of The Church Towards Amelioration Of Socio-Cultural Practices Inimical To Women,” A Thesis Submitted To The Department of Religion And Cultural Studies faculty Of Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, January 2012.
Palmer E., The Feminist Point View: Buchi Emecheta’s The Joy of Motherhood. Africa Literature Today No. 13. Other Essay in Social Anthropology, 1983,
Rosaldo M. Z., Women Culture, and Society New York. John Willey and Sons., 1973
Sackey Brigid M., New Directions in Gender and Religion: The Changing Status of Women in African Independent Churches, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006
Smart Ninian, The World’s Religions: Old Traditions and Modern Transformations, Cambridge, University Press, 1992 (1989)
Soboyejo, Josephine Olatomi, “Maami 8:12,” http://nigeriaworld.com/articles/2013/aug/190.html
Soboyejo, Josephine Olatomi, https://learnwithjoes.com/
Stott John, the Message of I Timothy and Titus, The Bibles Speaks Today Series, Leicester, Inter-Varsity Press, 1996.
Wachege P. N., Africans Women Liberation a Man’s Perspective. Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works, 1992,
Women And Religion: A Survey Of Significant Literature, 1965-1974
Yohanna, K. P., Revolution in World Missions, Carrollton, TX: GFA books for Asia, 2004
Church Response To Discrimination Against Women In The Context Of Human Rights And Economic Challenges (Part One)
Women in church leadership positions have been a debatable and controversial issue since the days of the Church Fathers. Discrimination against women has economic and human rights dimensions. The Jewish tradition, as well as the African tradition, is oppressive to women. The Scripture has a mixture of the oppressive culture of the Jews and Kerygma. Insecurity and domestic violence are the output of women’s discrimination. Therefore, Church leadership has much to do to restore peace and security to the nation. Women in Africa are economically challenged and play second fiddle to men in society and the Church’s top leadership. Women have contributed significantly to church establishment and growth; therefore, the Church is responsible for them. The article examines the historical discrimination and the challenges facing women. Some very wealthy churches hardly responded to women facing economic deprivations. Decades of human rights agitations and resolutions to protect women’s rights have not eradicated discrimination. The methodologies employed were philosophical inquiry, rational/logical analysis, and participatory observatory. The Church should encourage formal women’s education, set up skills, and facilitate funds for small enterprises that will enable women to overcome their economic challenges. Discrimination is a sin, and the Church must discourage it.
Key Words: Women, Human Rights, Church Leadership, Oppressive Culture, Discrimination.
The biblical perspective on human rights is accentuated in Genesis 1:27c: “Male and Female, God created them.”  The Millennium Development Goals Summit in 2010 on the way forward: an action agenda for achieving the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 stated in Agenda 54:
We acknowledge the importance of gender equality and empowerment of women to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Women are agents of development. We call for Action to ensure the equal access of women and girls to education, essential services, health care, economic opportunities, and decision-making at all levels. We stress that investing in women and girls multiplies productivity, efficiency, and sustained economic growth. We recognize the need for gender mainstreaming in the formulation and implementation of development policies. 
Also, the World Bank, in one of its highlights, stated, “Equal access to financial services, helping women build assets and professionalizing the care-giving sector can help accelerate progress in women’s economic empowerment.”  The more robust argument for affirmative Action for women is symbolic of equal representation in a country like Nigeria, where women constitute about half or more of the population and have been continuously relegated to public life.
Affirmative Action is usually a measure intended to supplement non-discrimination, which includes policies where a deliberate action is used to stop discrimination. Liberation theology teaches that the world’s people must be free from social-political-cultural-economic oppression. African women are crawling politically and economically. The status of women in early Christianity has been quite debated in recent decades; no doubt, it prompted interest in the women’s movement in Western Countries. Indeed, there is evidence in the New Testament itself of women doing many things within early Christianity. In Paul’s letters, he greeted women and called them co-workers. Paul referred to one of them by a Greek word that means “deaconess,” (The original Greek says: οὖσαν διάκονον, ousan diakonon, being [the] [female] servant of the church at Cenchreae. The word “diakonon” means servant in nearly all of its 30 uses in the New Testament, but it may also refer to the church office of deacon). Christian women of different statuses, different races, and exposure contributed immensely to the growth of Christianity, so the Church is liable to respond positively to women’s challenges. Despite men’s oppression, women of the Old Testament, New Testament, 2nd to 5th century, early Quakerism, women in missions, women of the Azusa Street revival, and many other women across the globe are highly celebrated and commended for their various services to God and humanity. They are role models for today’s young Christian women. These women showed different love in services, and they displayed exemplary character. Some of them enlarged Churches dominated by male leadership and, after that, started women’s organizations.
In pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria, women across the country had been a real force of change, deposing corrupt kings and fighting despotic leaders and policies.  But even though several nations had signed and/or ratified International conventions and treaties such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) of 1979 or the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, these have not been incorporated into Domestic Law. Nigerian women are still at the lowest ladder, crawling politically, religiously, and economically.
The Church: Its Nature and Its Purposes
The term “church,” as used here, means all those whom Christ has redeemed by his death and resurrection. In ‘The World’s Religions’ , Ninian Smart suggested that there were seven dimensions of Religion. Two of the seven dimensions are the doctrinal and philosophical and social and institutional dimensions. The doctrinal and philosophical dimension of Christian Religion is derivable from the sacred scriptures. The institutional aspect refers to the organized structures and hierarchies often to be found within religious traditions. For example, the papacy falls within the social and institutional dimensions of Roman Catholicism. This author is more concerned with these two dimensions of Christian Religion in this paper in highlighting the term “church.” The institutional dimension includes leadership structure and followership. Jesus Christ built the Church by calling his people to himself (Matt. 16:18). Luke told us in Acts 2:47 that the growth of the Church came not by human effort alone but that “the Lord added to their number day by day those who were being saved.” Whenever Paul writes his epistles, he directs the writings to the visible Church in each community; “To the church of God which is at Corinth” (1 Cor. 1:2). So here, this author speaks of the Church, as it is apparent to those who are genuine believers. The Church is local and universal. 
The Nature of The Church
Paul views the Church as a family (1 Tim. 5: 1-2). God is our heavenly father (Eph. 3:14). “I will be a father to you, and you shall be my sons and daughters say the Lord Almighty” (2 Cor. 6:18). We are, therefore, brothers and sisters with each other in God’s family (Matt. 12:49-50); 1 John 3:14-18). A different family metaphor is seen when Paul refers to the Church as the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:32). In some other metaphors, the Scripture compares the Church to branches on a vine (John 15:5), an Olive tree (Rom. 11: 17-24), a field of crops (1 Cor. 3: 6-9). Also, a church is not only a temple for the worship of God; it is a “holy priesthood” that can offer “spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God” (1 Peter 2:5). The Church is viewed as God’s house. The Church is also considered “the pillar and bulwark of the truth” (1 Tim. 3:15).
The Purposes of The Church
There are three distinct but interwoven purposes. There are other minor purposes, but the primary three purposes are essential to the aim of this paper.
- Ministry to God: The first purpose of the Church is to worship God
- Ministry to Believers: According to Scripture, the Church must nurture the believers (men and women) and build them up to maturity in the faith. This also involves the welfare and egalitarianism of all believers (men and women).
- Ministry of the World: This includes evangelism, discipleship, and showing mercy. The mercy ministry includes caring for the disadvantaged, like women, the poor, and the needy, in the name of the Lord.
The New Testament emphasizes giving material help to those who are part of the Church (Acts 11:29; 2 Cor. 8:4; 1 John 3: 17). There is the underlying message of equality, love, and response to the needs of believers. The germane point is to keep a balance of the three purposes. All three purposes are significant; none should be neglected or relegated to the background. The Church then has a responsibility to respond to any form of discrimination against women; and give appropriate responses to challenges of women believers.
Women’s Challenges: Then and Now
There is a clandestine oppressiveness towards women in the Jewish culture that could be seen in the Bible. Biblical teachings about women started in the book of Genesis, The LORD God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.” (Genesis 2:18, NIV). God created the woman as a “helper” for the man. Ignored is that God created men and women in His image and made them equal custodians of all His creation – Genesis 2:27-28. During the Old Testament (OT) Era, in comparison to other cultures of that time, Jewish women enjoyed great liberty and esteem to an extent. Many women distinguished themselves as prophetesses and leaders in the Jewish society. Some women were Miriam, Deborah, Esther, Hannah, Huldah, Jochebed, Noadiah, Rachel, Rebekah, Rahab, Ruth, and Sarah. These women played significant roles in Israel’s history. As evidence of the equality of men and women, the Ten Commandments require children to honor both their father and mother (Exodus 20:12)
There was a different scenario in the New Testament (NT). By the time of Jesus, women no longer had the freedom and status they enjoyed in the Old Testament era. The Jewish Society had become very much male-dominated. Women were regarded as inferior beings and were treated almost as the same status as enslaved people. Most of the women were not educated and were denied leadership roles. They were restricted to domestic duties. The discrimination against women could be seen in both the OT and NT because women were usually not counted in the census. Jesus’ attitude towards women differed from the customary cultural traits at the time. Jesus allowed women to travel with Him and His twelve disciples (Luke 8:1-3). The early churches followed Jesus’ example. Women were treated at least as near-equals and were permitted to hold positions of responsibility. Many of the women like Mary the mother of Jesus, Dorcas, Julia, Lydia, Persis, Priscilla, Phoebe, Tryphena, and Tryphosa played essential roles in the early Christian Church (Acts 1:12-14, 9:36, 16:14, 18: 24-26, 21:7-9, Romans 16: 1-16). However, the majority of women were confined to domestic duties. Lack of adequate education also added to their challenges. The exclusion of women from equal participation in society contributes to the oppression of women. The power of males over women is most clearly visible in all forms of violence against women. Statistics show that gender violence is a more significant cause of death and disability among women aged 15-44 than cancer, malaria, traffic accidents, or war. 
For over 100 years, women have been agitating for gender equality and economic empowerment as an essential part of their ‘Rights.’  The Beijing Platform for Action Commits governments to pursue and implement sound and stable macro-economic and sectorial policies that are designed and monitored with the full and equal participation of women, encourage broad-based sustained economic growth, address the structural causes of poverty, and are geared towards eradicating poverty and reducing gender-based inequality.  Women are the worst hit in the downward economy of Africa, especially in Nigeria; Sir Hugh Clifford’s Constitution of 1922 disenfranchised Nigerian women and limited adult males’ participation to the wealthy. Though there was an existing element of gender inequality in the culture and tradition of Nigerian societies, the colonial order made gender discrimination more pronounced. During the colonial order’s establishment, women became estranged from their rights. The enfranchisement of women in Nigeria seems to have surface-level maintenance because it is assumed that there are no barriers to women’s equality constitutionally. Yet, the lack of economic, educational, and knowledge empowerment remains challenging. Women’s empowerment has continued to be a topical issue at the center of most discussion and dialogue sessions at various levels and organs of governance. This issue has become even more crucial in the face of rising poverty, maternal mortality, epidemics, and a general fall in living standards across the developing economies of sub-Saharan Africa and other third-world economies.
Church Leadership & Women
Kasomo Daniel was of the view that in the early Church, the role of women was highly recognized and appreciated. Women participated as deacons, apostles (Rom. 16:7), church leaders (Rom. 16:3-5), and Church rulers (Rom. 16:1). Mary McKenna, pointed out those women’s pastoral functions included teaching, catechizing other women, and caring for the sick. She concluded that they are all called to serve the Church irrespective of the sexes. Throughout the ages, the Church has been unfair to women in assigning leadership roles. Wachege supported her view and also asserted that:
History shows that the Church, too, cannot be absolved from the evils of inflicting lamentable injustices on women. This has been happening through its hierarchical structures, which are predominantly and essentially male. .
Systematically, the Church has excluded its women folk from ordained ministry, especially in orthodox churches (an example is the Church of Nigeria, Anglican Communion). Crabtree supports this view by saying the following: “It is apparent that the contemporary Church’s view of women is that she is an aesthetically child-centered individual who has no talents for ordained ministry or policymaking position.” 
The effect of stereotypes about sex roles is seen in denominations where women are ordained; they still do not consider them for higher church positions. Crabtree gives the reason that these women are allocated for the most part to small country churches, which are not taken seriously by those in power.  Although ordination is not so vital for women’s participation in the Church, it becomes crucial as Wachege notes: “When the church fails to ordain women into Sacerdotal Ministry, it cuts them systematically from the subsequent religious roles.”  Lydia Mwaniki in her article, “Unveiling Paul: A Postcolonial Feminist Examination of the Construction of the Roman Family and its Influence on Pauline and Contemporary Christians, 1 Corinthians 11: 1-16” explores Paul’s construction of gender hierarchy as patterned after the hierarchy of the Roman family.  In the same article, she investigates ways in which the role and status of a woman in the Roman family influenced the role and status of a woman in Pauline congregations. Her overall argument is that the role and status of a woman in Pauline congregations cannot be adequately understood without considering the role and status of a woman in the Roman family. She hoped to contribute to feminist postcolonial discourses, which emphasize that de-patriarchalization is a process that must occur in tandem with decolonization. However, she does not explain women’s ministry in the Church at the grassroots and how the Roman structure influences it.
That hierarchical structure is reflected in the fundamental relationships of the husband and wife, parents and children, and masters and slaves. Within the family hierarchy, she notes, the father (paterfamilias) was at the top and had dominion (patriapotestas) over all those below him. This explains why the father’s authority could not be challenged. The Roman wife was highly privileged as the manager of the household affairs, among other privileges. As such, women’s roles in the first-century Church cannot be conceived outside the new Roman woman. John MacArthur, in his book, New Testament Commentary 1 Timothy, defends what he considers to be God’s plan for women in the Church.  He laments that:
The flood tides of evangelical feminism are sweeping away the traditional doctrines. Churches, schools, and seminaries are rapidly abandoning truths they have held since their inception. 
MacArthur claims that biblical passages on women’s roles were being culturally reinterpreted and ignored because of the alleged anti-female bias of the biblical authors, or dismissed as the additions of later redactors. He writes that this is Satan’s plan to entice women away from their God-created role in society, the family, and the Church. MacArthur’s commentary on I Timothy 2:9- 15 observes that women’s role in the Church is to be learners and not teachers, especially in public worship. He says, “It may seem obvious to us that women should be taught God’s word since they are spiritually equal in Christ and the commands of the New Testament are to all (I Peter 2:l-2).”  He notes that first-century Judaism did not hold women in high esteem and that most Rabbis refused to teach women, likening it to throwing pearls to the pigs. He supports his arguments by observing that there is no evidence of queens or priests in the Old Testament in Israel or Judah. He claims that Deborah acted as a judge only in exceptional circumstances.
As for the New Testament, MacArthur argues that there were no women pastor-teachers, evangelists, or elders and rejects that Philip’s daughters were prophetesses by arguing that their prophecy was never recorded. He further says that when the Church gathers, women are to listen to the men who teach. Women could only teach privately in their houses, as probably did Priscilla to Apollos (Acts 18: 26). John Stott considers the passage, I Timothy 2:8-15 the most controversial verse in the Pastoral Letters.  He advises that the conclusions one draws from the text depend mainly on the hermeneutical principles.
 The Bible teaches full equality of males and females in the Church, in the home, as well as in the general society through mutual respect and submission (Ephesians 5:21) e.g. Galatians 5:13, Romans 12:10. The Genesis creation accounts show that both male and female were created in the image and likeness of God; and were given equal mandate to fill the earth and take responsibility for the rest of the earth – Genesis 1:26-28; Genesis 1 and 2
 Josephine Olatomi Soboyejo, “Maami 8:12,” http://nigeriaworld.com/articles/2013/aug/190.html
 Ninian Smart, The World’s Religions: Old Traditions and Modern Transformations, Cambridge, University Press, 1992 (1989)
 Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction To Biblical Doctrine, Nottingham NG7 3HR: InterVarsity Press, 2015 ed., 857
 Kosomo Daniel, “The Role Of Women In The Church In Africa” in International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 2(6), 126-139, June 2010 Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ijsa ISSN 2006- 988x ©2010
 P. N. Wachege, Africans Women Liberation a Man’s Perspective. Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works, 1992, 93
 Crabtree 1970, 19 cited in K. Daniel, 131
 Cited in K. Daniel, 131-132.
 Cited in K. Daniel, 131.
 Lydia Mwaniki’ Unveiling Paul: A Postcolonial Feminist Examination of the Construction of the Roman Family and its Influence on Pauline and Contemporary Christians 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 in Journal of Constructive Theology, Gender, Religion and Theology in Africa’, Volume 16, No.l July, 2010. 30-59.
 J. MacArthur New Testament Commentary, I Timothy, Chicago; Chicago Moody Press, 1995, 77-90.
 J. MacArthur, 77.
 J. MacArthur, 83
 See his lengthy commentary of the passage in John Stott, The Message of I Timothy and Titus, The Bibles Speaks Today Series, Leicester, Inter-Varsity Press, 1996. 73-88